Extremeophiles and Extreme Environments: February 2016

The introduction and concentration of electron donors and acceptors in the subsurface biosphere is controlled by the mixing of subsurface fluids, but the mechanisms and rates at which microbial communities respond to changes induced by fluid mixing and transport are relatively unknown.

They live several kilometers under the surface of the earth, need no light or oxygen and can only be seen in a microscope.

ESA's Expose facility was retrieved today from outside the International Space Station by cosmonauts Yuri Malenchenko and Sergei Volkov, who were completing a spacewalk to place new experiments on the outpost's hull.

An international team of scientists recently returned from a 47-day research expedition to the middle of the Atlantic Ocean have collected an unprecedented sequence of rock samples from the shallow mantle of the ocean crust that bear signs of life, unique carbon cycling, and ocean crust movement.