Three Regimes of Extrasolar Planets Inferred From Host Star Metallicities

Approximately half of the extrasolar planets (exoplanets) with radii less than four Earth radii are in orbits with short periods. Despite their sheer abundance, the compositions of such planets are largely unknown.

The available evidence suggests that they range in composition from small, high-density rocky planets to low-density planets consisting of rocky cores surrounded by thick hydrogen and helium gas envelopes. Understanding the transition from the gaseous planets to Earth-like rocky worlds is important to estimate the number of potentially habitable planets in our Galaxy and provide constraints on planet formation theories. Here we report the abundances of heavy elements (that is, the metallicities) of more than 400 stars hosting 600 exoplanet candidates, and find that the exoplanets can be categorized into three populations defined by statistically distinct (~ 4.5{\sigma}) metallicity regions.

We interpret these regions as reflecting the formation regimes of terrestrial-like planets (radii less than 1.7 Earth radii), gas dwarf planets with rocky cores and hydrogen-helium envelopes (radii between 1.7 and 3.9 Earth radii) and ice or gas giant planets (radii greater than 3.9 Earth radii). These transitions correspond well with those inferred from dynamical mass estimates, implying that host star metallicity, which is a proxy for the initial solid inventory of the protoplanetary disk, is a key ingredient regulating the structure of planetary systems.

Lars A. Buchhave, Martin Bizzarro, David W. Latham, Dimitar Sasselov, William D. Cochran, Michael Endl, Howard Isaacson, Diana Juncher, Geoffrey W. Marcy (Submitted on 29 May 2014)

Comments: 13 pages, 2 figures. Published in Nature (this http URL)

Subjects: Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (astro-ph.EP)

DOI: 10.1038/nature13254

Cite as: arXiv:1405.7695 [astro-ph.EP] (or arXiv:1405.7695v1 [astro-ph.EP] for this version)

Submission history From: Lars A. Buchhave [v1] Thu, 29 May 2014 20:00:01 GMT (212kb)

Please follow Astrobiology on Twitter.


  • submit to reddit