Genomics, Proteomics, Bioinformatics

The 3 31 Nucleotide Minihelix tRNA Evolution Theorem and the Origin of Life

By Keith Cowing
Status Report
November 26, 2023
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The 3 31 Nucleotide Minihelix tRNA Evolution Theorem and the Origin of Life
Type II tRNA evolved via RNA ligation and a 9 nt internal deletion within ligated 3′- and 5′-acceptor stems [42]. Also, 3 31 nt minihelices (one D loop minihelix (magenta 17 nt core) and two anticodon stem-loop-stem minihelices (blue 17 nt core)) were fused by ligation for minihelix replication. The 93 nt tRNA precursor was processed by an internal 9 nt deletion (see below) within fused 3′-acceptor (yellow) and 5′-acceptor (green) stems. In the type II tRNA structure, the red arrow indicates the fusion of the magenta segment (17 nt D loop minihelix core; UAGCC repeat) and the green segment (5′-acceptor stem fragment; initially GGCGG). Abbreviations: SLS) stem-loop-stem; Ac) anticodon. Molecular graphics were created using ChimeraX [43]. — Life

There are no theorems (proven theories) in the biological sciences. We propose that the 3 31 nt minihelix tRNA evolution theorem be universally accepted as one.

The 3 31 nt minihelix theorem completely describes the evolution of type I and type II tRNAs from ordered precursors (RNA repeats and inverted repeats). Despite the diversification of tRNAome sequences, statistical tests overwhelmingly support the theorem.

Furthermore, the theorem relates the dominant pathway for the origin of life on Earth, specifically, how tRNAomes and the genetic code may have coevolved. Alternate models for tRNA evolution (i.e., 2 minihelix, convergent and accretion models) are falsified.

In the context of the pre-life world, tRNA was a molecule that, via mutation, could modify anticodon sequences and teach itself to code. Based on the tRNA sequence, we relate the clearest history to date of the chemical evolution of life.

From analysis of tRNA evolution, ribozyme-mediated RNA ligation was a primary driving force in the evolution of complexity during the pre-life-to-life transition. TRNA formed the core for the evolution of living systems on Earth.

The 3 31 Nucleotide Minihelix tRNA Evolution Theorem and the Origin of Life
Lei Lei and Zachary Frome Burton
Life 2023, 13(11), 2224; DOI: 10.3390/life13112224

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