Origin & Evolution of Life

How Did Life Emerge in Chemically Complex Messy Environments?

By Keith Cowing
Status Report
March 11, 2023
Filed under , , , ,
How Did Life Emerge in Chemically Complex Messy Environments?
Possible steps from the formation of immature [GADV]-proteins to the formation of AntiC-SL RNA [1]. [GADV]-microspheres surrounded by [GADV]-protein membranes could be formed with [GADV]-peptides during repeated wet-drying processes. A [GADV]-protein world was formed in the [GADV]-microsphere. [GADV]-amino acids and nucleotides were synthesized by immature but pluripotent [GADV]-protein catalysts through proto-metabolism in the microsphere. Successively, AntiC-SL RNA was produced by the repeated random polymerization of nucleotides and their degradation. The core life system was established in [GADV]-microspheres, with a higher proliferation ability generated through the processes and, eventually, the first life arose on primitive Earth. — Life

One of the problems that make it difficult to solve the mystery of the origin of life is determining how life emerged in chemically complex messy environments on primitive Earth.

In this article, the “chemically complex messy environments” that are focused on are a mixed state of various organic compounds produced via prebiotic means and accumulated on primitive earth. The five factors described below are thought to have contributed to opening the way for the emergence of life:

(1) A characteristic inherent in [GADV]-amino acids, which are easily produced via prebiotic means. [GADV] stands for four amino acids, Gly [G], Ala [A], Asp [D] and Val [V], which are indicated by a one-letter symbol.

(2) The protein 0th-order structure or a [GADV]-amino acid composition generating water-soluble globular protein with some flexibility, which can be produced even by the random joining of [GADV]-amino acids.

(3) The formation of versatile [GADV]-microspheres, which can grow, divide and proliferate even without a genetic system, was the emergence of proto-life.

(4) The [GADV]-microspheres with a higher proliferation ability than others were able to be selected. Proto-Darwin evolution made it possible to proceed forward to the creation of a core life system composed of the (GNC)n gene, anticodon stem-loop tRNA or AntiC-SL tRNA (GNC genetic code), and [GADV]-protein.

(5) Eventually, the first genuine life with a core life system emerged. Thus, the formation processes of [GADV]-protein and the (GNC)n gene in chemically complex messy environments were the steps to the emergence of genuine life.

Kenji Ikehara

How Did Life Emerge in Chemically Complex Messy Environments?, Life (open access)


Explorers Club Fellow, ex-NASA Space Station Payload manager/space biologist, Away Teams, Journalist, Lapsed climber, Synaesthete, Na’Vi-Jedi-Freman-Buddhist-mix, ASL, Devon Island and Everest Base Camp veteran, (he/him) 🖖🏻