Extrasolar Planets: January 2020

Context: Around 30 per cent of the observed exoplanets that orbit M dwarf stars are gas giants that are more massive than Jupiter. These planets are prime candidates for formation by disc instability.

We report the detection of a transiting super-Earth-sized planet (R=1.39+-0.09 Rearth) in a 1.4-day orbit around L 168-9 (TOI-134), a bright M1V dwarf (V=11, K=7.1) located at 25.15+-0.02 pc.

The darkness surrounding the Hale Telescope breaks with a sliver of blue sky as the dome begins to open, screeching with metallic, sci-fi-like sounds atop San Diego County's Palomar Mountain.

New astronomy research from the University of Central Lancashire (UCLan) suggests giant planets could form around small stars much faster than previously thought.

Recent ALMA observations indicate that the majority of bright protoplanetary discs show signatures of young moderately massive planets.

Scientists, including those from the University of Colorado Boulder, have finally scaled the solar system's equivalent of the Rocky Mountain range.

By analysing the transit LC of a planet-hosting star or the induced RV oscillations, many useful information on the planet may be retrieved. However, inferring the physical parameters of the planet (mass, size, semi-major axis, etc.) requires the preliminary knowledge of some parameters of the host star, especially its mass and/or radius, that are generally inferred through theoretical evolutionary models.

Zechmeister et al. (2009) surveyed 38 nearby M dwarfs from March 2000 to March 2007 with VLT2 and the UVES spectrometer. This data has recently been reanalyzed (Butler et al. 2019), yielding a significant improvement in the Doppler velocity precision.

The preponderance of white dwarfs in the Milky Way were formed from the remnants of stars of the same or somewhat higher mass as the Sun, i.e., from G-stars. We know that life can exist around G-stars.