The Impact Of The Planetesimal Surface Density In The Terrestrial Planet Zone

The growth time scales of planetary embryos and their formation process are imperative for our understanding on how planetary systems form and develop.

They determine the subsequent growth mechanisms during the life stages of a circumstellar disk. We quantify the timescales and spatial distribution of planetary embryos via collisional growth and fragmentation of dynamically forming 100km sized planetesimals. In our study, the formation timescales of viscous disk evolution and planetesimal formation are linked to the formation of planetary embryos in the terrestrial planet zone. We connect a one dimensional model for viscous gas evolution, dust and pebble dynamics and pebble flux regulated planetesimal formation to the N-body code LIPAD.
Our framework enables us to study the formation, growth, fragmentation and evolution of planetesimals with an initial size of 100km in diameter for the first million years of a viscous disk. Our study shows the effect of the planetesimal surface density evolution on the preferential location and timescales of planetary embryo formation. A one dimensional analytically derived model for embryo formation based on the local planetesimal surface density evolution is presented. This model manages to reproduce the spatial distribution, formation rate and total number of planetary embryos at a fraction of the computational cost of the N-body simulations.

The formation of planetary embryos in the terrestrial planet zone occurs simultaneously to the formation of planetesimals. The local planetesimal surface density evolution and the orbital spacing of planetary embryos in the oligarchic regime serve well as constraints to model planetary embryo formation analytically. Our embryo formation model will be a valuable asset in future studies regarding planet formation.

Linking planetary embryo formation to planetesimal formation I: The impact of the planetesimal surface density in the terrestrial planet zone

Oliver Voelkel, Rogerio Deienno, Katherine Kretke, Hubert Klahr
Subjects: Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (astro-ph.EP)
Cite as: arXiv:2008.10432 [astro-ph.EP] (or arXiv:2008.10432v1 [astro-ph.EP] for this version)

Submission history
From: Oliver Voelkel
[v1] Mon, 24 Aug 2020 13:36:38 UTC (1,764 KB)
https://arxiv.org/abs/2008.10432
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