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Oceanic Research: September 2016


As scientists continue finding evidence for life in the ocean more than 3 billion years ago, those ancient fossils pose a paradox.

We consider super-Earth sized planets which have a water mass fraction that is large enough to form an external mantle composed of high pressure water ice polymorphs and that lack a substantial H/He atmosphere.

A geologist from the University of Aberdeen is taking part in an ocean expedition that aims to discover how far beneath the Earth life can survive.