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Habitable Zones & Global Climate: August 2019


The frequency of Earth-size planets in the habitable zone of Sun-like stars, hereafter η⊕, is a key parameter to evaluate the yield of nearby Earth analogues that can be detected and characterized by future missions.

We present a formalism for a first-order estimation of the magnetosphere radius of exoplanets orbiting stars in the range from 0.08 to 1.3 Mo. With this radius, we estimate the atmospheric surface that is not protected from stellar winds.

One of the most exciting scientific challenges is to detect Earth-like planets in the habitable zones of other stars in the galaxy and search for evidence of life.

Galaxies represent the main form of organization of matter in our universe. Therefore, they are of obvious interest for the new multidisciplinary field of astrobiology.

When planets receive insolation above a certain critical value called the runaway threshold, liquid surface water vaporizes completely, which forms the inner edge of the habitable zone.

Despite surface liquid water's importance to habitability, observationally diagnosing its presence or absence on exoplanets is still an open problem.

The macroturbulent atmospheric circulation of Earth-like planets mediates their equator-to-pole heat transport.

Exoplanet science is one of the most thriving fields of modern astrophysics.

The possibility of low but nontrivial atmospheric oxygen (O2) levels during the mid-Proterozoic (between 1.8 and 0.8 billion years ago, Ga) has important ramifications for understanding Earth's O2 cycle, the evolution of complex life and evolving climate stability.