Moons and Icy Worlds: May 2017

Geophysical measurements can reveal the structure of icy ocean worlds and cycling of volatiles. The associated density, temperature, sound speed, and electrical conductivity of such worlds thus characterizes their habitability.

To date, seismological efforts have been limited to terrestrial objects: Earth, the Moon, and soon Mars. All have in common a rigid lithosphere above a solid mantle. The coming years may see the development of seismological experiments for Europa, Titan and Enceladus, so it is necessary to adapt seismological concepts to the setting of worlds with global oceans covered in ice.